Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 3rd International Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials Rome, Italy.

Day 1 :

Conference Series Magnetic Materials 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Fedor Pudonin photo
Biography:

Fedor Pudonin is the Head of Laboratory in P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute Russian Academy of Science, Russia. He is the chief researcher in the Laboratory of Heterogeneous Systems Physics.

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of studies of original nanostructures - multilayer systems from magnetic nanoislands of the (FeNi/Co)N type. Earlier in the metal nanoislands, we found photoconductivity in a wide spectral range (0.4-1.5 μm), anomalous conductivity, etc. It was also found that those systems can detect at room temperature superweak magnetic fields H of less than 10-11T. The physical reasons for this high sensitivity are not fully understood, but it is clear that they are due to the unusual physical properties of island systems. Metal nanoisland layers with a given effective thickness were grown by RF sputtering. For metal films, a percolation threshold was found - d* (for FeNi and Co films d*~1.8 nm). Films for d<d* were island, and d>d* - continuous. Nanoisland were flat pancakes of rounded shape with lateral dimensions of 3-30 nm, and their effective thickness varied from 0.4 to 7.0 nm. Magnetization processes were investigated at room temperature by the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). In the structures (FeNi/Co)N (N varied from 10 to 40), unidirectional magnetic anisotropy was observed, not associated with the well-known exchange anisotropy (the hysteresis loops did not have an exchange shift). It was suggested that the detected unidirectional anisotropy is associated with the appearance in the structures of an unusual supervortical magnetization. In this case the vortex is not concentrated in separate nanoislands, but is distributed over a certain set of them. Micromagnetic modeling confirmed the possibility of the existence of a supervortical magnetization in the island structure. An indirect confirmation of the existence of such unusual supervortical magnetization was the results of a study of the magnetization of the nanoislands layers on a SQUID magnetometer. The presence of a supervortical magnetization leads the island structures to be chiral and leads to the appearance of an anomalous optical nonreciprocity. In this report we discuss the possible causes of the appearance of optical nonreciprocity. However, the high sensitivity of island structures to superweak magnetic fields, apparently, is not related to supervortex magnetization. For this reason magnetization processes and magnetoresistance in special structures - bilayers [(FeNi/Co)-Al2O3]N were investigated. A region with specific magnetization in FeNi nanoislands in a weak magnetic field is appeared. In those regions of FeNi islands the rotation of the magnetization vector is occurred. Those regions we call a flat (two dimensions) spin springs. When the current flows through this region, additional scattering of the electron spins takes place and an additional negative magnetoresistance occurs. We believe that these spin springs can cause high sensitivity of island structures to weak magnetic fields.

Keynote Forum

Consiglia Mocerino

Sapienza University of Rome—MIUR, Italy

Keynote: Sustainability of nanomaterials in architecture
Conference Series Magnetic Materials 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Consiglia Mocerino photo
Biography:

Consiglia Mocerino graduated Cum Laude with a Master of Science Degree in Architecture, PhD in Urban Recovery and Regeneration and is a Specialist in Restoration of Monuments. She has held teaching, research collaboration and teaching assignments, as a Contract Professor, in Architectural at the Faculty of Architecture, Sapienza University of Rome. In the same faculty she obtained the nomination of Expert (3rd Member of the Examining Commission), in the discipline of Technology of Architecture and Industrial Design. She is an Expert in research on issues related to innovation and technological experimentation of systems and products in efficient, intelligent, low impact, environmentally friendly architectures, innovative materials and the application of third generation nanotechnology, IT, and intelligent robot in architecture. Her research interests include innovation and technological experimentation of systems and products in efficient, intelligent, low impact, environmentally friendly architectures, innovative materials and the application of third generation nanotechnologies, IT, and intelligent robot in architecture.

Abstract:

The nanomaterials that represent the technological innovation in the building industry are in a growing development, based above all on high performances of environmental sustainability and safety for managers and workers in the building sector and for end users. Hence, HenceHe nnew nanomaterials in architectures, such as in IT, electronics, healthcare, textiles, design, etc., are launched by improving chain production, with low environmental impact, for the protection of human health, excluding the possible risk of their probable toxicity—the identified toxicity and exposure identified in both humans and the environment. They are defined by the EU recommendation (2011/696/EU), adopted by REACH for registration, evaluation, authorization, restriction of chemicals and by CDL for classification and labeling as, "a natural, accidental or manufactured material containing free, aggregate or agglomerated particles in which, for 50% or more of the particles in the numerical dimensional distribution, where one or more external dimensions are in the range of dimensions 1 nm: 100 nm". This promising sector of the economy has become one of the strongest themes for studies and research, for universities, R&D, FIEC and FETBB and for national and international debates paying attention, mainly, to the chemical analysis and their life cycle up to the recycling of waste, to the awareness of the use and of useful instruments with necessary measures to be adopted. In fact, the physico-chemical properties of engineered or synthetic particles can differ from those of soluble and insoluble type, indicating the latter, and the most interested in the use of nanotechnologies and among the most susceptible to thermal effects, while focusing research on soluble particles, despite their easy dispersion in the environment. Therefore, objectives of conformity of the use of nanomaterials in different contexts with sustainable criteria for the environment and for human health, with improvement of production, safety and conscious application. Hence, strategies for monitoring and use of imagining techniques with application of ECHA, EUON Observatory with NanoData and NanoMapper, etc. The methodologies indicate the application of materials enhanced by nanoparticles such as self-cleaning cements with the ability to absorb CO2 emissions, ceramics, coatings, insulators, etc. The challenge in architecture is the improvement with conscious use of the materials we have designed in all the components of the building and the implementation of testing their technical performances.

Conference Series Magnetic Materials 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Vladyslav O Cheranovskii photo
Biography:

Vladyslav O Cheranovskii completed his Doctor of Sciences in the year 1994 from Institute for Single Crystal. He is the Professor of V.N.Karazin Kharkiv National University, Department of Chemistry. He has published 49 papers recognized by Scopus and Web of Science databases. He is working in field of Solid State Physics and Quantum Chemistry. His main subject of interest includes strongly correlated electron system quantum theoretical simulation of electron structure and thermodynamics of nanomagnets.

Abstract:

It is known that the intermediate plateau in field dependence of magnetization is informative characteristic for molecular ferrimagnets and some frustrated spin systems. We demonstrate the existence of intermediate magnetization plateau for a family of one-dimensional bipartite (non-frustrated) spin systems formed by weakly interacting segments and having singlet ground state. In the limit of weak interactions between segments these systems have a similar structure of the lowest part of the energy spectra and we presented simple description for above magnetization plateaus by means of perturbation theory. The increase of the interactions between segments leads to significant modification in the energy spectra and the magnetization curves for our systems. We studied this process numerically by the density matrix renormalization (DMRG) and Quantum Monte-Carlo (QMC) methods. We also performed numerical studies of the spin-Peierls instability for our systems and estimated the corresponding critical exponents for the ground state energy. We studied magnetic properties of the electron systems on finite 2-leg ladder rings formed by weakly interacting rungs and described by infinite-repulsion Hubbard model. For the numerical and analytical study of the lowest energy states of the above systems, we used cyclic spin permutation formalism. We found the possibility of jump-wise change of the ground state spin with the increase of the interaction between rungs. To explain this finite size effect, we derive new modification of magnetic polaron approximation, which agrees well with the results of the exact diagonalization study.

Conference Series Magnetic Materials 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Rafał Michalski photo
Biography:

Rafał Michalski graduated in 1996 from the Pedagogical of University Krakow, Poland in the department of Physics, Mathematics and Computer science. He worked in the Institute of Physics and Computer Science as an Assistant Professor (1996-2001) and then in 2001 he gained a Ph.D in physics in the department of Nuclear Physics and Solid State Physics at Krakow University of Mining and Metallurgy (AGH). Subsequently, he became an associate professor. His PhD Thesis was “Calculations of the thermal evolution properties of 4f-electron compounds with the use of the self-consistent methods”. In 2001, dr R. Michalski become a leader of a Polish Scientific Research Committee project (no 1463/P03/2002/22) entitled “The Effects of crystalline symmetry in ThCr2Si2 type Rare Earth compounds”. The project ended 31.12.2002. Simultaneously, he worked at the Center for Solid State Physics with prof R.J. Radwański (1996-2006) and published around 30 papers about Crystal Field (CEF) and spin-orbit coupling (SO) effects in materials. At the same time, R. Michalski created two free access computing packages: BIREC (Basic Interactions in Rare-Earth Compounds) and CEF for 3d ions (Crystal Electric Field for 3d ions) to simulate the fine electronic structure and examine the consequences of such a structure on properties of solids as a function of temperature. In 2006-2011 R. Michalski cooperated with a consulting company providing services for industry research projects and deployment of innovative technologies. During this time he invented some commercial technologies protected by 5 patent applications in the EU and the USA. In 2012, he set up and worked for a Light Source Photometry Laboratory for MILOO Electronics. In 2008, R. Michalski started his own commercial scientific activity and developed a project co-financed by European Union resources of the regional development fund (UDA-POIG.01.04.00-12-069/10-00) entitled: “Creation of tools for comprehensive analysis of magnetic properties of elements”. The result of this project was an application called Atomic Matters, which simulates the influence of crystal lattice charge surroundings on any atom/ion from the periodic table (www.atomicmatters.eu). Atomic Matters is designed to calculate, simulate and visualize the most relevant properties of materials which are determined by the fine electronic structure of contained ions or atoms in defined conditions. After completing this project, R. Michalski lead a team of programmers in the creation of ATOMIC MATTERS MFA software. ATOMIC MATTERS MFA is an extension of Atomic Matters for magnetic phase transition simulation by self-consistent calculations according to Mean Field Approximation methodology. The synergy of both applications makes it possible to predict the macroscopic properties of materials in user-defined temperature region by using the physical properties of atomic electron systems under the influence of an external magnetic field. The visual form of the results of calculations (including full 3D interactive CEF potential visualization), intuitive interface and tools, and comparative data makes the application extremely efficient and easy for new users. The premiere presentation of ATOMIC MATTERS MFA software was at Thermag VII, the Seventh IIF-IIR International Conference on Magnetic Refrigeration at Room Temperature, Torino Italy, 11-14 September 2016. R. Michalski has managed and participated in about 20 scientific projects. He is has authored more than 40 articles published in international journals and conference proceedings.

Abstract:

We present the results of calculations of magnetic properties of three compounds from Laves phase C15 family: DyAl2, HoAl2 and ErAl2 performed with a new computation system called atomic matters MFA. We compare these results with the recently published results for TbAl2, GdAl2 and SmAl2. The calculation methodology was based on the localized electron approach applied to describe the thermal evolution electronic structure of rare-earth R3+ ions over a wide temperature range and to compute magnetocaloric effect (MCE). Thermomagnetic properties were calculated based on the fine electronic structure of 4f9, 4f10 and 4f11 configurations of the Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+ ions, respectively. Our calculations yield the magnetic moment value and direction; single-crystalline magnetization curves in zero field and external magnetic field applied in various directions of m(T, Bext); the 4f-electronic components of specific heat c4f(T, Bext); and temperature dependence of the magnetic entropy and isothermal entropy change with external magnetic field -S(T, Bext). The cubic CEF parameter values used for DyAl2 calculations are taken from earlier research of A.L. Lima, A.O. Tsokol and recalculated for universal cubic parameters (Amn) for the RAl2 series. Our studies reveal the importance of multipolar charge interactions when describing thermomagnetic properties of real 4f electronic systems and the effectiveness of an applied self-consistent molecular field in calculations for magnetic phase transition simulation.

  • Magnetism | Electromagnetism | Spintronics | Materials Science
Location: Olimpica 3+4
Speaker

Chair

Fedor Pudonin

P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Russia

Speaker

Co-Chair

Karine Chesnel

Brigham Young University, USA

Biography:

Shavkat U Yuldashev has completed his PhD in the year 1983 from A.F. Ioffe Institute, Saint-Petersburg. He is the Professor at the Department of Physics of Dongguk University, Seoul, South Korea. He has published more than 175 papers in reputed journals. His expertise is in diluted magnetic semiconductors and spintronics.

Abstract:

GaMnAs have been studied intensely over the last few decades and have become a model system for diluted ferromagnetic semiconductors. At present, it is accepted that the Curie temperature of GaMnAs with metallic type of the conductivity coincides well with the maximum of the temperature derivative of the resistivity dρ/dT, similar to the ferromagnetic metals like Ni and Fe, whereas, for samples with low concentration of free carriers, the TC coincides with the resistivity maximum. The critical behavior of GaMnAs near the Curie temperature was experimentally studied by using the temperature dependencies of the resistivity, the specific heat, and the magnetization of GaMnAs. It is shown that the determination of TC from the maximum of the temperature derivative of the resistivity is valid only for the samples with a high concentration of free carriers. For the samples with low concentration of free carriers, the TC coincides with the resistivity maximum. The magnetic specific heat for T > TC demonstrates the crossover from the one dimensional to the three dimensional critical behavior when temperature become closer to the Curie temperature. This is explained by the existence of Mn-Mn dimers oriented along one direction at the beginning of the formation of the ferromagnetic phase on the paramagnetic side of the phase transition.

Biography:

Vladimir V Matveev has completed his PhD from Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics of USSR Academy of Sciences. He is a Senior Researcher of Department of Nuclear-Physics Investigation Techniques of Saint Petersburg State University, Russia. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and made a lot of reports/lectures at international conferences.

Abstract:

The lecture is devoted to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in the magnetically ordered state of matter. The technique is also known as NMR in magnetics or spin echo, or FNR. This method possesses a considerable potential for effective investigation and testing of various magnetic materials, especially in the nanocrystalline and/or in nanocomposite state. In the first part of the lecture an introduction is done to basic physics of pulse NMR in magnetics together with a brief description of the method development since its appearance, about 60 years ago. The method was successfully applied to a lot of magnetics such as metallic cobalt and cobalt-containing materials, including films, multilayers and nanoparticles; various ferro- and ferrimagnetic compounds, Heusler alloys, intrinsically inhomogeneous perovskite-like CMR manganites etc. A number of works of different years demonstrate that NMR technique was the useful addition to well known diagnostic methods of magnetic materials and allowed one to get unique information. In the second part of the lecture we review applications of the technique to some novel magnetic structures/materials during the last few decades. In particular, we describe a determination of the core-shell structure of bimetallic FeCo nanoparticles, an observation of ferromagnetic clusters in spin-glass manganites far above Curie temperature, molecular magnets i.e., array of molecular complexes with several 3d-metal ions, Mn-doped magnetic semiconductors, and a detection of zero-field 13C NMR signal in so-called magnetic carbon i.e., in carbon-based magnetic materials free from metallic elements. 

Biography:

Liubov Lukina obtained her Engineer diploma from the National Mineral Resources University in Saint Petersburg, Russia in 2015. Subsequently, she completed the Master program in Chemical Engineering in Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland in 2016. Since her Master thesis work concerned separation of rare earth metals, she decided to pursue researching this direction. Currently, she is working on her Doctoral thesis on the border of Chemistry, Physics and Engineering in University of KU Leuven in Belgium. She hopes that her work will help developing green methods for rare earth metal recycling from electronic and mining waste.

Abstract:

Rare earth metals are critical elements for many high-tech applications, e.g. electric vehicles, wind power generators and electronics. Due to the scarcity of rare earth metal supplies in Europe, it is clear that new efficient, environmentally friendly and cheap methods for separating rare earth metals from electronic and mining waste are needed. Currently used solvent extraction process is time-consuming and not efficient. In this context, magnetic separation of rare earth ions looks promising. Magnetic separation is a well-established method used in ore processing, food industry, biomedical diagnostic etc. The method of magnetic separation is based on the fact that REM have different magnetic susceptibilities: some of the rare earth ions are strongly paramagnetic (Dy3+, Ho3+), which means that they move towards the magnet; the other rare earth ions are diamagnetic (Sc3+, Y3+, Lu3+), hence they will move away from the magnet. Particles, cells and molecules easily undergo separation in a magnetic field. However, magnetic separation of ions has not been reported since 1950s. In this work, magnetomigration of rare earth ions was investigated using a separation device. The separation device featured a 2.5 ml3 cell where rare earth solution was enclosed and circulated due to natural convection. Magnetic field was applied to the device using a magnetic yoke setup. Enrichment of paramagnetic Dy3+ ions in the paramagnetic fraction was achieved. Simulation of the experimental system in Comsol 5.2 is allowed to verify the observed fluid flow and temperature patterns. Magnetomigration is the first step to magnetic separation of rare earth ions.

Biography:

K N Guruprasad is a Director of Shri Vaishnav Institute of Science, SVVV, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India. He has worked in the area of photobiology and magneto-biology for over 30 years and has published over 85 research papers in journals of international repute. His work on improvement of crop yields by magnetic field treatment is gaining importance in the field of agriculture as a non-invasive physical method that can enhance the performance of crop plants.

Abstract:

Maize (Zea mays variety: Ganga safed) seeds treated with static magnetic field (SMF) strength of 200 mT showed enhanced germination and seedling vigor. This stimulation leads to better growth of plants and improves the yield of the plant under field conditions. The initial biochemical events soon after treatment of seeds with SMF have been analyzed. SMF treatment induces production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) besides enhancing the activity of amylase enzyme. Inhibitors of NO like sodium tungstate (ST) and N-nitro-L arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) inhibit the promotion of seedling growth by SMF. Similarly diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH-oxidase enzyme which generates ROS, also inhibits SMF promoted seedling growth. On the contrary, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of NO, promotes SMF stimulated growth. The biochemical signal transduction of SMF for the promotion of germination and seedling growth is through the production of ROS and NO. ROS can directly degrade the stored food materials like starch in the seeds. NO is a known germination stimulator and an activator of amylase enzyme. The receptors of the magnetic field in the seeds which stimulate the production of these radicals are yet to be ascertained.

Biography:

Elena Ezerskaya has completed her PhD in the year 1985 from VN Karazin Kharkiv National University. She is Associate Professor at the Theoretical Physics Department of VN Karazin Kharkiv National University. She has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals. She is experienced university teacher and researcher in field of Theoretical Physics for more the 30 years, supervisor of MS and PhD students.

Abstract:

This work is devoted to the theoretical study of quantum stationary states and thermodynamics of some exactly solvable quantum models based on spin-1/2 XX-chain. Low-dimensional spin models occupy special place in quantum theory of magnetism. Some of these systems may have exact analytical solutions. In our study we consider the spin chains with defects: infinite XX-chain with impurity fragment, finite linear XX-chain with an additional ZZ (Ising) bond, two finite XX-chains, connected through an additional ZZ spin, finite spin-1/2 XX-chain closed by one zz (Ising) bond and open ends XX-chain with two zz-impurities at the both ends. For infinitive spin-1/2 XX-chain with impurity fragment in longitudinal magnetic field the exact energy spectrum is found. This spectrum consists of the energy band, set of discrete levels, and may contain from one up to four bound states localized on the boundaries of impurity fragment and main chain. We studied the critical behavior of local static thermodynamic characteristics and time dependence of dynamical longitudinal correlation functions at different temperatures. For finite XX-chain with Ising defects the localized levels near the impurity spin may exist in the spectrum. The conditions for their appearance were found. The field and temperature dependences of some thermodynamic characteristics of the models are studied. It is shown that the localized levels may effect noticeably on local thermodynamic characteristics.

Biography:

Yasuhiro H Matsuda completed his PhD in the year 1996 from Tohoku University. He is the Associate Professor of The Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo. He has published more than 100 papers in reputed journals. He is expertise in high-magnetic-field science and condensed matter. His discoveries of novel field-induced phases shed new light on condensed matter physics.

Abstract:

Ultrahigh magnetic field in the range of 100-1000 T opens new research fields in condensed matter physics. The spin Zeeman energy of a free electron reaches 1350 K (0.116 eV) at 1000 T that is large enough to change electronic as well as structural properties of matter. Various kinds of phase transitions can be induced by such ultrahigh magnetic fields and the novel high-field phase is regarded as a kind of new material. Destructive ways are only available for generation of the 100-1000 T fields and thus the time duration of the pulsed-fields is in the microsecond range, which requires us to develop special measurement techniques to overcome this severe condition. For magnetic field generation, the single-turn coli and the electromagnetic flux compression techniques have long been developed in our institute (the Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP)) and can generate up to 300 and 1000 T, respectively. Various kinds on intriguing phenomena such as the structural phase transition of solid oxygen, magnetic phase transitions in low dimensional magnets, novel spin-state transitions in cobalt-oxides, and the insulator-metal transition in a Kondo material are recently discovered in ultrahigh magnetic fields. Such recent physical achievements as well as developments of magnet technology are presented. 

Biography:

Zhe Li has completed his PhD in early 2012 from University of Cambridge and Postdoctoral studies from Imperial College of London in 2014. Later on he joined Swansea University as a Research Fellow (2014-2016) and Senior Research Fellow (2016-2017). He is now a Lecturer in Energy Materials at School of Engineering, Cardiff University. He has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals and holder of one industrial patent.

Abstract:

As a next generation photovoltaic (PV) technology, solution processed organic solar cells have undergone significant improvements in their performance, now achieving the threshold for commercial viability. However, their environmental stability has been widely recognized as a major bottleneck for their commercialization. Various environmental factors including light, heat, oxygen and humidity, are known to cause rapid degradation of their performance, with the majority of their degradation mechanisms still remaining widely unclear. Such limitation has imposed further challenges in device encapsulation, which results in significant process limitations, higher costs and only partially effective process solutions. Organic solar cells are typically based upon solution processed conjugated donor polymers with the soluble fullerene derivative PCBM or its larger analogue PC70BM. However, fullerenes are known to be expensive to fabricate and purify, and their weak optical absorption in the visible/near-infrared region and narrow range of available energy levels have limited further efficiency optimisation of organic solar cells. Recently, their highly sensitive nature to light and oxygen, as well as high tendency to nucleate and crystallize have been identified as primary degradation pathways of organic solar cells under various environmental stress conditions. Recently, the emergence of a range of non-fullerene acceptor materials has led further breakthroughs in the development of solution processed organic solar cells. Compared to their fullerene-based counterparts, these materials demonstrate great promise in achieving superior device performance with significantly reduced fabrication costs. Furthermore, while fullerenes are known to be linked with a number of major degradation mechanisms of organic solar cells particularly under light and thermal stress conditions, the use of non-fullerene acceptors instead of fullerenes represents a unique opportunity to address the stability challenge of organic solar cells. In this talk, author will combine a number of advanced characterization techniques to investigate the degradation of both fullerene-based and fullerene-free solution processed organic solar cells under various degradation environments especially under light, oxygen and thermal stress conditions, and demonstrate how a better understanding of the degradation mechanisms of their performance lead to improved materials and device design for improved solar cell stability, thereby significantly enhancing their commercialization potential of both types of organic solar cells.

Lahmar Abdelilah

University of Picardie Jules Verne, France

Title: Enhanced magnetization in the BiFeO3-RMnO3 thin films
Biography:

Lahmar Abdelilah received his Doctorate in Science in Materials Chemistry in 2007 from University of La Rochelle (France)/University Mohammed V (Morocco). Subsequently he worked at the Institute for Materials and Surface Technology (IMST) in Kiel (Germany) until 2012. Then he moved to Amiens, in Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, where he obtained his Habilitation thesis in 2017. His research interests encompass a broad range of multifunctional materials (multiferroic, electrocaloric, and magnetoelectrics). He has published more than 50 papers published in peer reviewed journals and contributed to numerous international conferences.

Abstract:

The monolithic BiFeO3 (BFO) is claimed to be multiferroic at room temperature, but only a weak magnetization and moderate polarization are observed. The co-doping of BFO is a way to improve electrical properties as well as magnetization. Thin films of the BiFeO3-RMnO3 (R = rare earth) system affords an interesting combination of good ferroelectric polarization and magnetization properties at room temperature that are a prerequisite for intrinsic multiferroism. Particularly, the addition of GdMnO3 leads to a substantial increase in magnetization that experimentally allows the determination of Néel temperature (TN). The origin of magnetization improvement will be discussed in terms of Gd substitution effects on octahedral distortion and tilting.